Journal of Civil Protection <p>The Journal of Civil Protection is a quarterly scientific edition, founded in 2005 and distributed on the territory of the republic of Belarus and beyond its borders. Until 2016, the journal had been published once every six months under the name “Vestnik of the Institute for Command Engineers of the MES of the Republic of Belarus”.</p> Университет гражданской защиты МЧС Беларуси en-US Journal of Civil Protection 2519-237X Criteria for the development of effective inorganic flame retardants for nonwoven fine fiber polyester materials <p><i>Purpose.</i> Identification of the most important criteria for the effectiveness of inorganic flame retardants in relation to bulk polyester materials and the features of thermal-oxidative degradation of polyester heat-insulating materials modified by them. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Theoretical method of comparative analysis, experimental methods of gravimetry, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, GOST fire tests. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The influence of the chemical and particle size distribution of ammonium phosphate flame retard-ants on the effectiveness of surface fire protection and the laws of thermo-oxidative destruction of polyester fiber materials modified by them was investigated. It has been proven that colloidal systems with particle sizes of no more than 50 nm, containing components of both gas-phase and solid-phase action, are the most effective. The principles for the development of synthetic inorganic flame retardants for fine-fiber polymeric materials are formulated. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The results obtained are the basis for the targeted synthesis of new non-toxic flame retardants for fine-fiber polyester materials for various purposes including building insulation and sound insulator.</p> Andrei N. Nazarovich Olga V. Reva Copyright (c) 2022 Nazarovich A.N., Reva O.V. 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 6 3 263 277 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-3.263 The study of the loss of fire resistance of the reinforced concrete crossbars and beams in operation <p><em>Purpose.</em> The development of the theory of fire resistance of constructions, buildings and structures considering one of the directions of combined hazardous effects with the participation of fire – the assessment of fire resistance of reinforced concrete structures, having regard to the duration and conditions of their operation.</p> <p><em>Methods.</em> To determine the operational limits of fire resistance, an analytical method for solving a static problem, a finite element analysis method for solving a heat engineering problem of fire resistance were used. The results of fire tests are applied to confirm the reliability of the data obtained by the simulation method.</p> <p><em>Findings.</em> It has been found that already with a 25 % reduction in load-bearing capacity during use, reinforced concrete structures lose about 50 % of their original fire-resistance rating. It has been established that the dynamics of the loss of fire resistance of reinforced concrete crossbars and beams mainly depends on the category of technical condition, and not on their design parameters.</p> <p><em>Application field of research.</em> The presented research results of fire resistance were obtained for reinforced concrete structures in operation and can be used to predict the behavior of operating reinforced concrete structures in fire, as well as to develop models and improve standards in the field of designing fire resistance of reinforced concrete structures.</p> Dmitriy N. Pristupyuk Vladimir Yu. Fedorov Ruslan A. Danilov Copyright (c) 2022 Pristupyuk D.N., Fedorov V.Yu., Danilov R.A. 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 6 3 278 293 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-3.278 Prospects of the use of optical measuring instruments and devices during the testing of smoke optoelectronic spot fire detectors <p><i>Purpose.</i> The assessment of sensitivity of devices used and proposed for use during the testing of smoke optoelectronic spot fire detectors to smoke generated from various sources. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> The study of information sources, applied standards, and methods for measuring sensitivity of fire smoke detectors, development of a specialized test stand, conducting studies at a specialized stand and analysis of the obtained results. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The results of studies of the characteristics of the air environment during smoke generation with glowing cotton, wood smouldering, and from test aerosols are presented. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> Test laboratories of manufacturers of fire smoke detectors and accredited certification centers.</p> Ilya O. Klochihin Mikhail A. Vasiliev Leonid T. Tanklevskiy Copyright (c) 2022 Klochihin I.O., Vasiliev M.A., Tanklevskiy L.T. 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 6 3 294 304 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-3.294 Ensuring fire safety of hydrogen filling stations <p><i>Purpose.</i> To analyze the development of hydrogen filling stations in the Russian Federation, as well as in foreign countries. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Political and legal method, system-structural method. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The development of hydrogen filling stations in the Russian Federation, China, Japan, the Republic of Belarus, as well as the countries of the European Union, as well as the United States of America, is considered. Hydrogen energy is considered as an element of the development of the transport industry. The priorities and goals of local development plans in above mentioned countries dictate the need to create hydrogen filling stations. A review of analytical studies of the fire hazard of hydrogen fuel transport infrastructure facilities, global trends in the use of hydrogen fuel in the transport industry, as well as materials proving the need to develop a global infrastructure for the use of hydrogen fuel, namely, hydrogen filling stations was reviewed. One of the ways to improve fire safety is to improve the processes for obtaining hydrogen fuel, its conversion into energy, as well as storage at gas stations. The development of hydrogen filling stations directly affects the creation and improvement of the hydrogen industry in the world. The state of the regulatory and technical base in the field of maintenance and fire safety of hydrogen filling stations often lags behind the general level of the economy in a number of countries. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The carried out analysis of the development of hydrogen filling stations can be used to develop and implement regulatory and technical acts in the field of ensuring the fire safety of hydrogen filling stations.</p> Alexander V. Fomin Andrey A. Egorov Valeria A. Borisova Copyright (c) 2022 Fomin A.V., Egorov A.A., Borisova V.A. 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 6 3 305 311 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-3.305 Chair of combustion processes and environmental safety of the Academy of State Fire Service of EMERCOM of Russia: a glorious past – a promising future <p><i>Purpose.</i> The purpose of this work is to study and analyze the main areas of scientific activity of the Chair of Combustion Processes and Environmental Safety (as a part of the scientific research complex of Combustion Processes and Environmental Safety) of the State Fire Academy of EMERCOM of Russia. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> In the process of the work, theoretical research methods (review, description, analysis) were applied. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The paper presents the main stages of the formation of the department of «Combustion Processes and environmental safety». The scientific achievements that have appeared due to the laborious work of the department's staff since its creation are considered. The latest developments of the department in the field of explosion prevention, fire risk reduction, and safety increasing of the technogenic zone are described. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The results of the analysis show the latest developments in the field of ensuring the safe use of liquefied natural gas, the creation of non-flammable refrigerants and new extinguishing agents, reducing the threat of explosion at various facilities, the study of pyrophoric corrosive deposits. This review may be useful to researchers working in similar fields.</p> Ilya P. Eltyshev Pavel S. Kopylov Eduard E. Pervenov Dmitriy A. Petrilin Ivan A. Teterin Vasiliy V. Timokhin Rustam R. Shangaraev Copyright (c) 2022 Eltyshev I.P., Kopylov P.S., Pervenov E.E., Petrilin D.A., Teterin I.A., Timokhin V.V., Shangaraev R.R. 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 6 3 312 325 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-3.312 The role and place of civil defense in the system of ensuring national security of the republic of belarus (in the context of ensuring military security) <p><i>Purpose.</i> To determine the role and place of civil defense in the system of ensuring the national security of the Republic of Belarus (in the context of military security). </p><p><i>Methods.</i> General scientific research methods: induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis, comparison and generalization, analogy are used in the article. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The dialectical connection between civil defense activities and the system of ensuring the national security of the Republic of Belarus has been revealed and substantiated. In the context of ensuring military security, the Civil Defense implements measures of strategic deterrence, and is an integral part of defense measures. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The results of the study are a contribution to the development of the theory of civil defense, first of all, concerning its role and place in the national security system. The results of the study can be used in the development and revision of regulatory legal acts, including the National Security Concept, the Military Doctrine, the Law «On Civil Defense», the Law «On Defense» in terms of clarifying the measures and directions of state policy in the field of civil defense.</p> Alexander D. Bulva Copyright (c) 2022 Bulva A.D. 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 6 3 326 338 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-3.326 Experimental model of the simulator with imitation of the effects of physical impacts in virtual reality for the training of firefighters <p><i>Purpose.</i> To develop an experimental model of a simulator for the training of firefighters, including software and elements of simulating the effects of physical impacts on students in virtual reality conditions, as well as to investigate the effect of tactile feedback effects on students. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> The general methodology of the work included the use of theoretical research methods (analysis, synthesis, comparison). The impact of tactile feedback effects on students was determined by measuring their heart rate in the randomized study with two parallel groups. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> Based on the analysis of the experience of using virtual and augmented reality technologies in educational activities, the purpose, composition, structure and functions of the experimental model of the simulator with imitation of the effects of physical impacts in virtual reality for the training of firefighters (EMS) are formulated. EMS includes VR headset (to control the simulation and transmit visual and sound effects), VR suit (to provide tactile feedback by the electrical stimulation of neuromuscular structures) and original software. It allows students to be immersed in a virtual environment that simulates conditions of the emergency situation (fire in an apartment building) and the impact of dangerous factors on them. Using EMS, the influence of tactile feedback effects on students was studied. It is shown that the use of EMS makes it possible to reduce the number of mistakes made by students when extinguishing a fire in an apartment building in a virtual simulation by 2.5 to 4.0 times compared to using virtual reality technologies without applying tactile feedback effects. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The results of the work can be used to create a simulator with imitation of the effects of physical impacts in virtual reality in order to use it in the educational process for the training of firefighters.</p> Ivan I. Palevoda Vitaliy N. Ryabtsev Aleksey O. Likhomanov Oleg D. Navrotskiy Aleksandr V. Grachulin Dmitriy V. Gapanyuk Artem A. Morozov Vasiliy M. Klimovtsov Georgiy V. Vinyarskiy Kirill E. Shinkorenko Igor' S. Gusarov Il'ya V. Bobarika Copyright (c) 2022 Palevoda I.I., Ryabtsev V.N., Likhomanov A.O., Navrotskiy O.D., Grachulin A.V., Gapanyuk D.V., Marozau A.A., Klimovtsov V.M., Vinyarskiy G.V., Shinkorenko K.E., Gusarov I.S., Bobarika I.V. 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 6 3 339 360 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-3.339 Adaptation of the conditions of cadets' educational activities in accordance with the peculiarities of professional functions of extinguishing fires <p><i>Purpose.</i> The educational process of the educational organization of higher education of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia is obliged to bring the educational activities of cadets as close as possible to professional duties at the fire site, taking into account the preservation of the life and health of the student, as well as the requirements of the regulatory framework of the Russian Federation. This aspect determines the need to highlight the components that will underlie the educational activities of cadets at the practice base facilities, as well as the development of scenarios for the visualization of professional activities in the environment of special software. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> As research methods, an analysis of special literature, professional activities of an employee of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia at the call site, as well as components of the professional environment were used. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The requirements for the organization of educational activities of cadets for professional purposes are identified: professional training, determined by the operational actions of an employee of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia in accordance with the content of the stages of combat operations to extinguish a fire; organization of the educational process in an environment as close as possible to the real one; implementation of educational activities in strict accordance with the requirements of regulatory legal acts of the EMERCOM of Russia. Based on the requirements, a model of a situational task has been developed. The sequence of problem solving by cadets is divided into twelve stages. Each stage reflects the operational actions of cadets to extinguish a fire, taking into account the requirements of the regulatory legal acts of the EMERCOM of Russia. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The situational task model can underlie the modeling of professional activity in educational places, representing the model of the object of the economy in real size, as well as the scenario of special computer software. The stages of solving the problem make it possible to assess the level of professional readiness of cadets in order to timely correct the educational process.</p> Alexey V. Ermilov Sergey N. Nikishov Maxim O. Bakanov Copyright (c) 2022 Ermilov A.V., Nikishov S.N., Bakanov M.O. 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 6 3 361 371 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-3.361 Particularities of methodology of investigation of passenger cars arsons <p><i>Purpose.</i> Improvement the methodology for investigating fires on motor vehicles. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Theoretical analysis, synthesis, systematization. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The article is devoted to the investigation of cases of fires in cars. The stages of inspection of vehicles during arson are described taking into account modern trends in the development of forensic tactics, particularities of working with physical evidence, means, techniques and methods for detecting and removing traces. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The presented results can be used in law enforcement activities in the investigation of fires on vehicles.</p> Vladimir N. Pasovets Vadim A. Kovtun Elena Yu. Goroshko Shamkhal Sh. Tagiev Copyright (c) 2022 Pasovets V.N., Kovtun V.A., Goroshko E.Yu., Tagiev Sh.Sh. 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 6 3 372 380 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-3.372 To the 90th anniversary of retired engineer-colonel, grand PhD in psychological sciences, professor Marks Aronovich Kremen <p>The authors of this material were fortunate to meet and work with Marks Aronovich at the National School for Training Firefighters – the University of Civil Protection of the Ministry for Emergency Situations of Belarus.</p> Ivan I. Palevoda Aleksandr P. Gerasimchik Alexey B. Bogdanovich Yuriy V. Karkin Diana Yu. Shamal' Copyright (c) 2022 Palevoda I.I., Gerasimchik A.P., Bogdanovich A.B., Karkin Yu.V., Shamal' D.Yu. 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 6 3 381 382 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-3.381