Journal of Civil Protection https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp <p>The Journal of Civil Protection is a quarterly scientific edition, founded in 2005 and distributed on the territory of the republic of Belarus and beyond its borders. Until 2016, the journal had been published once every six months under the name “Vestnik of the Institute for Command Engineers of the MES of the Republic of Belarus”.</p> Университет гражданской защиты МЧС Беларуси en-US Journal of Civil Protection 2519-237X Measurement of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation by means of optical waveguide structures https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/676 <p><i>Purpose.</i> Analysis of the measuring methods and structures of the sensors of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation on the base of optical waveguides. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> The general methodology of the work included the use of theoretical research methods (analysis, synthesis, comparison). </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The measurement methods and structures of the sensors of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation on the base of optical waveguides are analyzed. The physical effects underlying the methods are considered. It’s shown that the sensors comprising microring resonators on the base of silicon waveguides coated with fluoropolymer are the most prospective due to the higher sensitivity. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The results of review and analysis of the information about the methods of measurement of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation can serve as a basis for creating effective optical waveguide dosimeters with higher sensitivity. </p> Igor A. Goncharenko Aleksandr V. Il'yushonok Vitaliy N. Reabtsev Copyright (c) 2022 Goncharenko I.A., Il'yushonok A.V., Reabtsev V.N. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 6 2 159 175 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-2.159 Radiation survey of the territory of the Republic of Belarus adjacent to Ignalina NPP https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/677 <p><i>Purpose.</i> To carry out a selective survey of the territory of the Republic of Belarus adjacent to the area where the Ignalina NPP is located. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Gamma spectrometric method, comparative analysis, expert evaluation method. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The article presents the results of measurements of the main parameters characterizing the radiation situation on the territory of the Belarusian segment of the observation zone of the Ignalina NPP – values of the ambient dose equivalent rate of γ-radiation and the total count rate of γ-radiation pulses, carrying out γ-spectrometry in the field using scintillation and semiconductor spectrometers, as well as determining the volumetric activity of radionuclides present in the surface layer of atmospheric air, the specific activity of radionuclides in samples of soil, water and bottom sediments. As a result of processing the spectra in environmental objects in the survey area, the presence of terrigenous radioisotopes (<sup>40</sup>K, daughter members of the <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>226</sup>Ra (<sup>238</sup>U) series), cosmogenic <sup>7</sup>Be and technogenic <sup>137</sup>Сs was established. The specific activity of <sup>137</sup>Cs in the soil on the territory of the Belarusian sector of the 30 km zone of the Ignalina NPP is 2.1–3.5 Bq/kg, the density of surface contamination with this radionuclide is 140–280 Bq/m<sup>2</sup>. The content of other gamma-emitting technogenic radionuclides, whose activity in the environment is usually monitored to assess the radiation situation, is below the detection limit under these measurement conditions. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The data obtained as a result of independent radiation monitoring, characterizing the radiation situation in the zone of influence of the Ignalina NPP, can be the basis for a comparative analysis of the measurement results in the subsequent assessment of the radiation situation in the zone of observation of both the Ignalina and the Belarusian NPP. </p> Yury A. Bugrov Ekaterina K. Nilova Zhanna G. Kronova Vladimir L. Samsonov Copyright (c) 2022 Bugrov Yu.A., Nilova E.K., Kronova Zh.G., Samsonov V.L. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 6 2 176 185 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-2.176 Development of a methodology for measuring the parameters of class A fire extinguishing by a powder fire extinguishing modular installation of short-term action in the scheme of extinguishing locally on the surface https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/678 <p><i>Purpose.</i> Development of a methodology for measuring the parameters of extinguishing class A fire with a modular powder extinguishing system (MPES) of short-term action in the extinguishing scheme locally on the surface and experimental determination of the values of these parameters that ensure effective extinguishing of a fire of this class. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> The achievement of purpose was carried out by the development of procedures for measuring the parameters of class A fire extinguishing (fire extinguishing time, intensity of the supply of extinguishing powder to the combustion zone, speed of powder particles in this zone, and specific consumption of powder for extinguishing the fire) and experimental determination of the values of these parameters in conditions close to the natural when using the MPES. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The conditions for effective extinguishing of class A fire with a general-purpose extinguishing powder with short-term effect on the fire source in the extinguishing scheme locally on the surface are determined. A method of measuring the parameters of extinguishing fires of class A with the MPES of short-term action in the extinguishing scheme locally on the surface has been developed. Experimental studies of the effectiveness of extinguishing class A fire with a general-purpose extinguishing powder with a short-term effect on the fire source (duration ~ 1 s) and various extinguishing modes have been carried out. Experimental dependences of the average extinguishing time and the average specific consumption of the extinguishing powder of the «Vekson-ABC 25» type for extinguishing a model fire of subclass A1 on the average intensity of the powder supply to the combustion zone in the extinguishing scheme locally on the surface are constructed. It has been established that there is an optimal value of the intensity of the supply of extinguishing powder to the fire source, at which the extinguishing time and, accordingly, the specific consumption of powder for extinguishing the fire are minimal. This value is recommended as a normative one when evaluating the fire extinguishing capacity of the MPES used to extinguish fires of subclass A1 with the fire extinguishing powder «Vekson-ABC 25». </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> Solving the problems of increasing the reliability of extinguishing fires of class A by MPES and improving the methodology for assessing their extinguishing ability.</p> Anatoliy I. Kitsak Sergey M. Palubets Denis N. Nadtochii Denis S. Lobach Copyright (c) 2022 Kitsak A.I., Palubets S.M., Nadtochii D.N., Lobach D.S. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 6 2 186 200 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-2.186 Experimental investigation of compression foam jet supply https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/679 <p><i>Purpose.</i> Determination of optimal technical characteristics and methods of application of the domestic compression foam generating unit. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Hydraulic calculations, experimental studies. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The technical features and tactical capabilities of compressed air foam systems (hereinafter referred to as CAFS) are considered. The range of the compression foam jet supply was determined experimentally, depending on the foam characteristics, the diameter of the nozzle of the fire barrel and the overpressure at the outlet from it. The experimental data obtained in the study were used in the development of technical specifications of CAFS – 2/8-50. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The results obtained can be used in developing methodological recommendations for the use of compressed air foam systems for fire extinguishing purposes. </p> Il'ya S. Skorupich Aleksandr V. Grachulin Kirill E. Shinkorenko Copyright (c) 2022 Skorupich I.S., Grachulin A.V., Shinkorenko K.E. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 6 2 201 210 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-2.201 Foaming agent for extinguishing water-soluble combustible liquids https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/680 <p><i>Purpose.</i> Development of a foaming agent for the purpose of extinguishing water-soluble combustible liquids. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Theoretical research methods (analysis, synthesis), as well as empirical ones – measuring the dynamic viscosity of polymer solutions, testing the foam stability on the surface of water-soluble combustible liquids – are used in the work. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> Measurements of the viscosity values of polymer solutions were carried out and the maximum value of the polymer concentration was determined, at which the viscosity of the foaming agent is acceptable for use by pumping units of fire trucks; a technique has been developed for determining the stability of foam on the surface of water-soluble combustible liquids. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The results obtained are of practical importance and can be used in the development of foam concentrate formulations, and the developed method will make it possible to determine the foam stability on the surface of water-soluble combustible liquids in laboratory conditions.</p> Yana A. Kondakova Oleg D. Navrotskiy Igor Yu. Ivanov Copyright (c) 2022 Kondakova Ya.A., Navrotskiy O.D., Ivanov I.Yu. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 6 2 211 218 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-2.211 Experimental studies of the parameters of flow movement along a dry riverbed under high-altitude conditions at a hydrodynamic accident https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/681 <p><i>Purpose.</i> To experimentally investigate the nature of movement and parameters of non-stationary water flows in the lower reaches along a dry riverbed formed when the integrity is violated or the dam breaks under high-altitude conditions. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Hydraulic calculations, experimental studies, video surveillance. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> A model of the hydraulic structure under consideration and a methodology for conducting the experiment have been developed. The nature of the moving flow during a hydrodynamic accident at a high-altitude dam is revealed. The height of the displacement wave in the design sections when the water flow moves along a sloping dry riverbed was determined experimentally. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The obtained results can be used to predict the consequences of a possible hydrodynamic accident, which is necessary for the development of measures of population evacuation, elimination of the flooding consequences, and assessment of possible damage.</p> Marina Yu. Striganova Igor M. Shatalov Maria K. Shcherbakova Nikolay N. Bandolik Alexey A. Gudkov Darya S. Komzolova Copyright (c) 2022 Striganova M.Yu., Shatalov I.M., Shcherbakova M.K., Bandolik N.N., Gudkov A.A., Komzolova D.S. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 6 2 219 227 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-2.219 Fire on vehicles: causes of their appearence https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/682 <p><i>Purpose.</i> Investigation of the causes of fires on vehicles. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Theoretical analysis of the causes of fires on vehicles. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The main causes of fires on vehicles are considered in this paper. Intentional and unintentional fires are discussed in details. The main distinguishing features of these groups of fires are presented. Intentional fires on motor vehicles occur due to insurance fraud, based on a sense of revenge, for the purpose of stealing for pleasure trips, to cover up traces of the car being used for criminal purposes. The main causes of unintentional fires on motor vehicles are technical malfunctions of systems and components of the internal combustion engine and short circuits in the electrical equipment of the car. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The results of this work can be used in the field of fire safety on motor vehicles.</p> Vladimir N. Pasovets Vadim A. Kovtun Shamkhal Sh. Tagiev Copyright (c) 2022 Pasovets V.N., Kovtun V.A., Tagiev Sh.Sh. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 6 2 228 238 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-2.228 Trailed motorized fire pump for extinguishing peat fires https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/683 <p><i>Purpose.</i> To determine the necessary performance parameters of a trailed motorized fire pump when extinguishing peat fire based on the study of the experience of using the forces and means of the subunits of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Theoretical research methods (analysis, synthesis, comparison) are used in the paper. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The statistics of forest and peat fires in the Republic of Belarus for the last five years is presented. The number of fire rescue technics and personnel involved in extinguishing is determined. The analysis of the consumption of fire extinguishing agents supplied to extinguish peat fires has been carried out. The relevance of the use of a trailed motorized fire pump of increased performance in extinguishing forest and peat fires in the Republic of Belarus is substantiated. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The obtained research results can be used for further development of fire technology in the field of extinguishing forest and peat fires.</p> Artem A. Antonovich Vyacheslav V. Lakhvich Pavel N. Goman Copyright (c) 2022 Antonovich A.A., Lakhvich V.V., Goman P.N. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 6 2 239 247 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-2.239 Information and communication environment as a resource and tool for foreign language education of specialists https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/684 <p><i>Purpose.</i> To highlight the resource and methodological aspects of modern information and communication technologies for foreign language education of specialists. To reveal the prospects and problems of teaching foreign language communication in modern conditions of the dominant Internet while maintaining traditional approaches to teaching a foreign language. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Critical analysis of theoretical sources on the implementation of information and communication technologies in the pedagogical process. Generalization of the practical experience of foreign language education of workers in the field of life safety and students of the University of Civil Protection. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The resource and methodological advantages of modern information and communication systems and technologies used to form and develop the foreign language communicative competence of specialists, in particular the technology of distance teaching in the elements of English communication of rescue service workers, are revealed. The recommendations are given on the most effective methodological use of modern tools and resources necessary for the linguistic education of specialists in the field of life safety. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> Information and communication support of the pedagogical process of teaching communication, including foreign language. Methodology and practice of teaching intercultural communication, taking into account the modern level of information technology.</p> Tatyana G. Kovaleva Tatyana G. Dement'eva Copyright (c) 2022 Kovaleva T.G., Dement'eva T.G. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 6 2 248 256 10.33408/2519-237X.2022.6-2.248