Journal of Civil Protection https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp <p>The Journal of Civil Protection is a quarterly scientific edition, founded in 2005 and distributed on the territory of the republic of Belarus and beyond its borders. Until 2016, the journal had been published once every six months under the name “Vestnik of the Institute for Command Engineers of the MES of the Republic of Belarus”.</p> en-US vestnik@ucp.by (Платонов А.С.) vestnik@ucp.by (Платонов А.С.) Fri, 13 Aug 2021 16:37:30 +0300 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 International experience in incident response during the construction and operation of nuclear power plants https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/631 <p><i>Purpose.</i> Investigation of the features of the construction, commissioning and operation of nuclear power plants. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> General scientific methods of research of induction, deduction, analysis and synthesis. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> Accidents, incidents and the socio-political situation that arose during the construction, commissioning and operation of nuclear power plants in the near and far abroad, as well as in the Republic of Belarus, are analyzed. The basic principles of further development of the nuclear industry in the republic, taking into account the Concept of National Security of the Republic of Belarus, are proposed. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The presented research results can be used to improve certain provisions of the National Security Concept of the Republic of Belarus concerning the development of the country's nuclear energy. </p> Oleg V. Levchuk Copyright (c) 2021 Levchuk O.V. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/631 Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Evaluation of fire resistance of steel building structures taking into account the influence of heat exchange with adjacent structures https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/632 <p><i>Purpose.</i> On the basis of experimental studies and theoretical data, to determine the thermophysical characteristics of an intumescent fire retardant and evaluate the heating of steel structures with intumescent fire protection of the outer surface, taking into account the adjoining of a concrete coating, as well evaluate the effect of heat transfer with a concrete coating on the optimal layer thickness of an intumescent fire retardant to ensure the required fire resistance limit. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Modeling in the system of finite element analysis. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> On the basis of a series of experimental and theoretical studies in the ANSYS finite element analysis system, the thermotechnical problem of fire resistance of steel structures with fire protection of the outer surface based on an intumescent composition was solved, taking into account the abutment of a concrete coating. Experimental studies are used to assess the effective values of the thermophysical characteristics of an intumescent composition by solving the inverse problem of thermal conductivity for a computational finite element model using parametric optimization methods. The obtained thermophysical characteristics made it possible to evaluate the heating of steel structures with fire protection, taking into account heat transfer with a concrete coating. Depending on the required fire resistance level and the type of the considered structures (floor slab) and the design situation, taking into account heat exchange with the concrete coating, the optimal thickness of the fire retardant coating that provides the required fire resistance level is reduced by 1.2 ... 4.4 times. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The results can be used to solve the fire resistance problems of steel structures with partial and full fire protection of the outer surface during the design and construction of buildings and structures. </p> Sergey S. Botyan, Sergey M. Zhamoydik, Vadim A. Kudryashov, Nikolay M. Olesiyuk, Ivan A. Pischenkov Copyright (c) 2021 Botyan S.S., Zhamoydik S.M., Kudryashov V.A., Olesiyuk N.M., Pischenkov I.A. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/632 Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Reinforced concrete centrifuged columns with structural fire protection model fire tests https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/633 <p><i>Purpose.</i> To develop a methodology and conduct model fire tests of reinforced concrete columns with and without Knauf Fireboard gypsum boards structural fire protection 12.5 to 40 mm thick, to obtain a temperature distribution on the heated and unheated surfaces of the fire protection and columns, as well as on the reinforcement. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Fire testing. Thermoelectric converters temperature measurement. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> A method has been developed and model fire tests of centrifuged reinforced concrete columns with and without Knauf Fireboard gypsum boards structural fire protection fire protection 12.5 to 40 mm thick have been carried out. It has been experimentally proved that Knauf Fireboard fire-resistant gypsum boards are an effective way to ensure fire protection of reinforced concrete columns, allowing to increase their fire resistance up to the standardized maximum value in the Republic of Belarus, R180. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The obtained results can be used in buildings and structures design process as fire resistance assessment of reinforced concrete columns protected by structural fire protection based on fire-resistant gypsum boards. </p> Ivan I. Palevoda, Sergey M. Zhamoydik, Denis S. Nekhan' Copyright (c) 2021 Palevoda I.I., Zhamoydik S.M., Nekhan' D.S. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/633 Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Study of the influence of the window profile material on a single-layer glass panel under standard fire exposure https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/634 <p><i>Purpose.</i> To develop a method for calculating the fire resistance of a single-layer flat glass panel enclosed in a frame under the conditions of standard impact during various fire loads, taking into account the design features of the frame and the thermophysical properties of air, fume gases and the frame. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Calculations of the temperature and stress distribution of a bounded glass panel are performed numerically using the FlexPDE software package. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The distribution of temperature and stresses in a single-layer flat glass panel enclosed in a window profile is calculated, taking into account the temperature dependence of the thermophysical characteristics of glass, air and flue gases, the design features of the translucent structure and the nonlinear nature of the change in the ambient temperature during a fire. The effect of the material of the window profile on the destruction of a single-layer flat glass panel enclosed in a frame under conditions of standard fire exposure under various fire loads has been investigated. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The results of the study can be used in the design of buildings and structures to ensure safe operation and evacuation in the event of a fire. </p> Aleksandr S. Dmitrichenko, Svetlana V. Zditovetskaya, Sevindzh I. Mamedova Copyright (c) 2021 Dmitrichenko A.S., Zditovetskaya S.V., Mamedova S.I. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/634 Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Increasing the thermomechanical properties of sheet glasses for the purpose of creation of fire-resistant light-transparent enclosures of high buildings https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/635 <p><i>Purpose.</i> Investigation of the thermomechanical properties of sheet glass used for translucent enclosing structures with the development of measures to increase the level of fire safety of high-rise buildings. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> To solve the set tasks, theoretical and experimental research methods are used. The theoretical method is based on solving the problems of the thermal regime of solids and analyzing the criteria for the destruction of translucent structures in a fire. The experimental method is based on the identification of the relationship between the parameters of the fire and the criteria for the destruction of the translucent facade on the fire floor and upper lying floors. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The review of the state of the problem in the field of fire safety of high-rise buildings with facade glazing is carried out. It is established that the currently used translucent enclosing structures are made mainly of multilayer or tempered glass, which causes an increased load on the foundation, high cost and does not always preserve the integrity of the structure in the event of a fire. Experimental studies of the hardening of sheet glass of different denominations by chemical quenching were carried out, the possibility of using this method to create fireproof glasses was evaluated. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> Fire safety in construction, translucent building envelopes. </p> Viktor A. Biryuk, Maksim A. Davydik, Aleksandr P. Kravchuk Copyright (c) 2021 Biryuk V.A., Davydik M.A., Kravchuk A.P. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/635 Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Sorption and retention capacity of modified fibrous-porous materials in relation to oil and petroleum products https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/636 <p><i>Purpose.</i> Investigation of the effect of electric polarization of polymeric fibrous materials on the sorption of oil and petroleum products. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Melt blowing of Borealis brand polypropylene. Polarization of samples in a corona discharge field of positive and negative polarity with a strength of 25 kV/cm. Sample processing in low-temperature oxygen plasma of a glow discharge with a frequency of 35 kHz. Weighting method for determining sorption characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy method. Electret thermal analysis method. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The dependence of sorption parameters of materials on the type of physical modification – corona discharge of different polarity and low-temperature plasma of a glow discharge – has been established. It is shown that the modification of fibrous-porous materials in a corona discharge field to impart electret properties to them somewhat reduces the sorption characteristics of these materials in relation to oil. In the manufacture of sorption materials for the collection of crude oil, the original unmodified fibrous-porous material should be used. It has been experimentally established that in the manufacture of sorption materials for the collection of light oil fractions, the preferred method is the modification of fibers in a corona discharge field of negative polarity. Electrization has a significant effect on the processes of sorption by fibers of its lipophilic components. A physical model of the sorption of petroleum products by electret samples of polymeric fibrous-porous materials is proposed. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> Fibrous-porous polymeric materials subjected to physical modification with the formation of an electret state can be used for: sorption of some oil fractions, filtration of liquids from contaminants of a dielectric nature, purification of air from ionized dust containing radioactive particles, targeted separation of biological fluids containing dielectric and (or) electret components. </p> Vladimir I. Zhukalov, Victor A. Goldade, Sergey V. Zotov Copyright (c) 2021 Zhukalov V.I., Gol'dade V.A., Zotov S.V. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/636 Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Prevention of emergencies caused by destruction of engineering structures https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/637 <p><i>Purpose.</i> To analyze developments to ensure the safe operation of objects (buildings and structures, bridges and tunnels, mines and other building structures) by organizing remote monitoring of their stress-strain state by using systems of strain-gauge, potentiometric and piezoelectric sensors of mechanical deformation and forces. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Theoretical analysis. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> An overview of scientific information devoted to research in the development of systems for continuous monitoring of the technical condition of building structures is presented. The necessity of using these systems at facilities that pose a potential danger to personnel, population and the environment is shown. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The results can be used in the field of ensuring the safety of buildings and structures. </p> Vadim A. Kovtun, Vladimir N. Pasovets, Ali M. Tanyrverdi, Maksim A. Antonenko Copyright (c) 2021 Kovtun V.A., Pasovets V.N., Tanyrverdi A.M., Antonenko M.A. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/637 Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of emergencies probability at hydraulic structures https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/638 <p><i>Purpose.</i> Analyze the methods for determining the risk of hydrodynamic accidents on hydraulic structures of various types (reservoirs, sludge storage, technical reservoirs, etc.). Substantiate the main directions for improving the system of ensuring the safety and reliability of hydraulic structures. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> The method of theoretical analysis of literary sources was applied in assessing the regulatory and legal framework of the Central Asian countries in the field of ensuring the safety of hydraulic structures of various types. The processing of the obtained results is carried out using the method of estimation and theoretical generalization of the data obtained. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> It has been established that the existing methods for assessing the risk of emergencies at hydraulic structures of various types (reservoirs, sludge storage, technical reservoirs, etc.) are complex, cumbersome and laborious to use due to the lack, inaccuracy and uncertainty of the initial data. In this regard, it is required to develop a methodology for assessing the risk of emergencies at hydraulic structures, taking into account their design features. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The research results can be used for a comprehensive assessment of the state of hydraulic structures of the Ministry of Natural Resources, as well as the Ministry of Emergency Situations in the development of medium and long-term forecasts of emergencies. </p> Valeriy V. Kobyak, Dmitriy S. Mikanovich, Mark M. Zhurov Copyright (c) 2021 Kobyak V.V., Mikanovich D.S., Zhurov M.M. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/638 Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Analytical review of heat and mass transfer models in protective clothing https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/639 <p><i>Purpose.</i> Review the models for determining the thermophysical and physiological indicators of the state of a person in protective clothing by modeling heat and mass transfer systems. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> Analysis of approaches to the determination of heat and mass transfer in protective clothing by reviewing scientific works in the area under study. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The analysis of methods for determining the thermophysical and physiological indicators of the state of a person in protective clothing by modeling heat and mass transfer systems is carried out, the necessary conditions for obtaining test data and comparison with calculation data are determined. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The results of the research can be used in the development, research and optimization of methods for determining the thermophysical and physiological indicators of the human condition in protective clothing of firefighters by modeling heat and mass transfer systems.</p> Nikolay M. Dmitrakovich, Dmitriy V. Zhuk Copyright (c) 2021 Dmitrakovich N.M., Zhuk D.V. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/639 Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Application of the method of multi-criterial synthesis in solving problems to ensure fire safety https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/640 <p><i>Purpose.</i> Increasing the efficiency of scientific research and solving applied problems in the field of fire safety by introducing a computational computer experiment – the method of multi-criteria synthesis to reduce the time, material and labor costs for the experiment and provide correct systemic interpretation of test results. </p><p><i>Methods.</i> To solve the problems of fire safety, the method of multi-criteria synthesis was applied. It makes it possi-ble to predict the behavior of the system, taking into account the stochasticity of its parameters and the choice of rational characteristics that provide the required output parameters. The search for the optimal set of parameters of a technical object involves the determination of the calculated values of the criteria by the values of the calculated points, which are located in the multidimensional space of variable parameters. In this case, the space of parameters is transformed into the space of criteria, taking into ac-count the accepted restrictions. </p><p><i>Findings.</i> The article provides examples of the application of the method of multi-criteria synthesis in solving problems of ensuring fire safety. The formulation of a fire retardant and fire extinguishing composition based on synthetic phosphates of bivalent and trivalent ammonium metals, being highly effective in impact on peat and wood, was determined. The using of an optimization-simulation approach made it possible to predict the time of extinguishing a fire in a tank and to select the optimal parameters of extinguishing by supply of low expansion foam directly into the fuel layer. On the basis of multi-criteria computer synthesis, the concentration of the modifying additive in the set of diamond segments and the cutting conditions for the tool during emergency rescue operations was determined. The way of assessing the aggregate territorial risk by the method of statistical modeling was developed which created a framework for risk management, including legal, economic regulation and compulsory insurance. </p><p><i>Application field of research.</i> The presented research results are aimed at improving the fire safety of various objects. </p> Ol'ga O. Smilovenko, Valentina V. Bogdanova, Sergey M. Malashenko, Aleksandr I. Poluyan, Fuad O. Mirgulamly Copyright (c) 2021 Smilovenko O.O., Bogdanova V.V., Malashenko S.M., Poluyan A.I., Mirgulamly F.O. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://journals.ucp.by/index.php/jcp/article/view/640 Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300