Experimental investigations of the influence of the structural elements of sprinklers on the expansion rate of air-mechanical foam

Authors

  • Andrey N. Kamlyuk State Educational Establishment «University of Сivil Protection of the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus»; ul. Mashinostroiteley, 25, Minsk, 220118, Belarus https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9347-0778
  • Aleksey O. Likhomanov State Educational Establishment «University of Сivil Protection of the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus»; ul. Mashinostroiteley, 25, Minsk, 220118, Belarus

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33408/2519-237X.2017.1-2.167

Keywords:

automatic firefighting installations, air-mechanical foam, preaeration, foam expansion rate, sprinklers, Venturi principle, deflector, fire-extinguishing efficiency

Abstract

Purpose. Differentiation of constructive foam-forming factors, namely the ejector and the sprinkler deflector, influencing the expansion rate of the obtained air-mechanical foam in automatic firefighting installations.

Methods. Conducting an experimental study of the process of formation of low expansion air-mechanical foam with sprinklers of various designs.

Findings. The design of the sprinkler ejector with a cylindrical flowing path performs a preaeration of the extinguishing agent by only 12 % less efficient than the ejector made on the Venturi principle. It was found that the mechanical disintegration of the foaming solution flow on the sprinkler deflector has the greatest effect on increasing the expansion rate of the air-mechanical foam (the expansion rate increases by an average of 158 % in various sprinkler designs in the presence of the deflector). It is determined that as the distance of the element is increased, which ensures the splitting of the jet of the foaming solution, the expansion rate of the foam is increased. Thus, when the disintegration element of the flow (the bottom of the measuring container) was installed at a distance of about 50 cm from the deflector, the expansion rate increased by an average of 161 % compared to the values obtained when this element was installed at a distance of 3-4 diameters of the deflector of the sprinkler.

Application field of research. The obtained results of experimental study can be used to improve the efficiency of firefighting with sprinklers in foam automatic firefighting installations.

Conclusions. The effectiveness of preaeration of the extinguishing agent has been confirmed. The effect of individual structural elements of modern sprinklers on the expansion rate of air-mechanical foam is established. It is determined that the greatest contribution to the increase of expansion rate is brought by the desintegration of the flow of the foaming solution on the sprinkler deflector. Consequently, by modeling the surface of the deflector, the way it is fastened and positioned, it is possible to achieve values of the foam expansion rate K = 10–15 even without the effect of preaeration. To determine the influence of the geometry of the deflector, the method of its fastening and positioning with respect to the sprinkler, additional theoretical and experimental studies are required.

Author Biographies

Andrey N. Kamlyuk, State Educational Establishment «University of Сivil Protection of the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus»; ul. Mashinostroiteley, 25, Minsk, 220118, Belarus

Deputy Head of the University for Scientific and Innovation Activity; PhD in Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Associate Professor

Aleksey O. Likhomanov, State Educational Establishment «University of Сivil Protection of the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus»; ul. Mashinostroiteley, 25, Minsk, 220118, Belarus

Student

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Published

2017-05-02

How to Cite

Kamlyuk А. and Likhomanov А. (2017) “Experimental investigations of the influence of the structural elements of sprinklers on the expansion rate of air-mechanical foam”, Journal of Civil Protection, 1(2), pp. 167–177. doi: 10.33408/2519-237X.2017.1-2.167.

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